Friday, May 22, 2020
Learning the French names for countries is relatively easy if you are already familiar with the name in English. In most instances, the translation is as simple as attaching something likeÃ -iqueÃ orÃ -ieÃ to the end of the name.Ã That means that this a very easy French lesson which students of any level can learn. Les Pays en FranÃ §ais Below is a list of virtually all of the countries in the world, organized alphabetically from English to French. As you study geography in the French language, you will find it useful to learn how to speak about the countries and be able to use them in sentences. Remember that you need to use a definite article (the the, such asÃ le orÃ la)Ã for countries. Some of the countries do not have aÃ definite articleÃ because they are islands. Articles are normally not used with islands. You will also need to know the gender of the country in order to use it in a preposition.Ã Nearly all countries that end in -e are feminine, and the rest are masculine. There are just a few exceptions: le Belizele Cambodgele Mexiquele Mozambiquele ZaÃ ¯rele Zimbabwe In those cases and forÃ countries that useÃ lÃ as the definitive article, the gender is indicated next to the name. English French Afghanistan l'Afghanistan (m) Albania l'Albanie (f) Algeria l'AlgÃ ©rie (f) Andorra l'Andorre (f) Angola l'Angola (m) Antigua and Barbuda l'Antigua-et-Barbuda (f) Argentina l'Argentine (f) Armenia l'ArmÃ ©nie (f) Australia l'Australie (f) Austria l'Autriche (f) Azerbaijan l'AzerbaÃ ¯djan (m) Bahamas les Bahamas (f) Bahrain le BahreÃ ¯n Bangladesh le Bangladesh Barbados la Barbade Belarus la BiÃ ©lorussie Belau Belau Belgium la Belgique Belize le Belize (m) Benin le BÃ ©nin Bhutan le Bhoutan Bolivia la Bolivie Bosnia la Bosnie-HerzÃ ©govine Botswana le Botswana Brazil le BrÃ ©sil Brunei le BrunÃ ©i Bulgaria la Bulgarie Burkina-Faso le Burkina Burma la Birmanie Burundi le Burundi Cambodia le Cambodge (m) Cameroon le Cameroun Canada (learn the provinces) le Canada Cape Verde Island le Cap-Vert Central African Republic la RÃ ©publique centrafricaine Chad le Tchad Chile le Chili China la Chine Colombia la Colombie Comoro Islands les Comores (f) Congo le Congo Cook Islands les ÃÅ½les Cook Costa Rica le Costa Rica CÃ ´te d'Ivoire la CÃ ´te d'Ivoire Croatia la Croatie Cuba Cuba Cyprus Chypre (f) Czech Republic la RÃ ©publique tchÃ ¨que Denmark le Danemark Djibouti le Djibouti Dominica la Dominique Dominican Republic la RÃ ©publique dominicaine Ecuador l'Ãâ°quateur (m) Egypt l'Ãâ°gypte (f) El Salvador le Salvador England l'Angleterre (f) Equatorial Guinea la GuinÃ ©e Ã ©quatoriale Eritrea l'Ãâ°rythrÃ ©e (f) Estonia l'Estonie (f) Ethiopia l'Ãâ°thiopie (f) Fiji les Fidji (f) Finland la Finlande France (learn the regions) la France French Polynesia la PolynÃ ©sie franÃ §aise Gabon le Gabon Gambia la Gambie Georgia la GÃ ©orgie Germany l'Allemagne (f) Ghana le Ghana Greece la GrÃ ¨ce Grenada la Grenade Guatemala le Guatemala Guinea la GuinÃ ©e Guinea Bissau la GuinÃ ©e-Bissao Guyana la Guyana Haiti HaÃ ¯ti Honduras le Honduras Hungary la Hongrie Iceland l'Islande (f) India l'Inde (f) Indonesia l'IndonÃ ©sie (f) Iran l'Iran (m) Iraq l'Irak (m) Ireland l'Irlande (f) Israel IsraÃ «l (m) Italy l'Italie (f) Jamaica la JamaÃ ¯que Japan le Japon Jordan la Jordanie Kazakhstan le Kazakhstan Kenya le Kenya Kiribati Kiribati (f) Kuwait le KoweÃ ¯t Kyrgyzstan le Kirghizstan Laos le Laos Latvia la Lettonie Lebanon le Liban Lesotho le Lesotho Liberia le LibÃ ©ria Libya la Libye Liechtenstein le Liechtenstein Lithuania la Lituanie Luxembourg le Luxembourg Macedonia la MacÃ ©doine Madagascar Madagascar (m) Malawi le Malawi Malaysia la Malaisie Maldives les Maldives (f) Mali le Mali Malta Malte (f) Marshall Islands les ÃÅ½les Marshall Mauritania la Mauritanie Mauritius ÃÅ½le Maurice (f) Mexico le Mexique (m) Micronesia la MicronÃ ©sie Moldavia la Moldavie Monaco Monaco Mongolia la Mongolie Montenegro le MontÃ ©nÃ ©gro Morocco le Maroc Mozambique le Mozambique Namibia la Namibie Nauru la Nauru Nepal le NÃ ©pal Netherlands les Pays-Bas New Zealand la Nouvelle-ZÃ ©lande Nicaragua le Nicaragua Nieu NiouÃ © Niger le Niger Nigeria le NigÃ ©ria North Korea la CorÃ ©e du Nord Northern Ireland l'Irelande du Nord (f) Norway la NorvÃ ¨ge Oman l'Oman (m) Pakistan le Pakistan Panama le Panama Papua New Guinea la Papouasie-Nouvelle-GuinÃ ©e Paraguay le Paraguay Peru le PÃ ©rou Philippines les Philippines (f) Poland la Pologne Portugal le Portugal Qatar le Qatar Romania la Roumanie Russia la Russie Rwanda le Rwanda Saint Kitts-Nevis Saint-Christophe-et-NiÃ ©vÃ ¨s (m) Saint Lucia Sainte-Lucie Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint-Vincent-et-les-Grenadines San Marino Saint-Marin Sao TomÃ © and Principe Sao TomÃ © et Principe (m) Saudi Arabia l'Arabie saoudite (f) Scotland l'Ãâ°cosse (f) Senegal le SÃ ©nÃ ©gal Serbia la Serbie Seychelles les Seychelles (f) Sierra Leone la Sierra Leone Slovakia la Slovaquie Slovenia la SlovÃ ©nie Soloman Islands les ÃÅ½les Salomon Somalia la Somalie South Africa l'Afrique du Sud (f) South Korea la CorÃ ©e du Sud Spain l'Espagne (f) Sri Lanka le Sri Lanka Sudan le Soudan Surinam le Surinam Swaziland le Swaziland Sweden la SuÃ ¨de Switzerland la Suisse Syria la Syrie Tajikistan le Tadjikistan Tanzania la Tanzanie Thailand la ThaÃ ¯lande Togo le Togo Tonga les Tonga (f) Trinidad and Tobago la TrinitÃ ©-et-Tobago Tunisia la Tunisie Turkey la Turquie Turkmenistan le TurkmÃ ©nistan Tuvalu le Tuvalu Uganda l'Ouganda (m) Ukraine l'Ukraine (f) United Arab Emirates les Ãâ°mirats arabes unis (m) United Kingdom le Royaume-Uni United States (learn the states) les Ãâ°tats-Unis (m) Uruguay l'Uruguay (m) Uzbekistan l'OuzbÃ ©kistan (m) Vanuatu le Vanuatu Vatican le Vatican Venezuela le Venezuela Vietnam le ViÃ ªt-Nam Wales le pays de Galles Western Samoa les Samoa occidentales Yemen le YÃ ©men Yugoslavia la Yougoslavie Zaire (Congo) le ZaÃ ¯re (m) Zambia la Zambie Zimbabwe le Zimbabwe (m)
Saturday, May 9, 2020
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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
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Wednesday, April 29, 2020
The anti-slavery movement was a largely humanitarian movement that began in the early 1 9th century. The attempt to end the slave trade also was intended to further Europeanize African societies. Not only did the legalization of trade seek to end the Atlantic slave trade, but also the slave that had existed among Africans for centuries. Therefore, many aspects of the traditional African society were altered. As the slave trade died, new markets opened both to meet European demands and to take advantage of the available African labor.Most of the products that the Europeans implemented were cash crops. Various cash crops included cotton, maize, tobacco, sugar, coffee, tea, palm Oil, and groundnuts. The cash crops were in high demand in the rest Of the world and played a major part in the modernization of most regions of the continent. Europeans pursued the production of cash crops for the purpose of raising revenue to pay for the expenses of the colonization process. We will write a custom essay sample on Legitimate Trade And Cash Crops or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As a result, traditional subsistence farming lost importance, most nations focused on only a single or a few crops, nationalism of land occurred, and innovations were brought to Africa such as irrigation.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Quality Management in Service Industries Essay Example Quality Management in Service Industries Essay Quality Management in Service Industries Essay Part 1. Introduction In present time, there is a worldwide trend that service industry occupies a dominant position in the economy in the majority of developed countries and areas. Without a doubt, major changes in government policy and business transactions have a significant influence on the flourish of services industry. However, nowadays the increased value of services also brings big pressure on marketers to implement different strategies because there are big variances in the features of service and physical product. To start with, this essay will focus on the reasons why is quality such an important issue in the marketing of services. Furthermore, the reasons why is quality more difficult to manage in service industries than it is in the case of physical goods will also be discussed in this essay. Part 2. Basic Definition I. Quality In manufacturing, a measure of excellence or a state of being free from defects, deficiencies, and significant variations, brought about by the strict and consistent adherence to measurable and verifiable standards to achieve uniformity of output that satisfies specific customer or user requirements. ISO 8402-1986 standard defines quality as the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. II. Services As one kind of products in the market, Ã¢â¬Å"services are deeds, processes, and performance provided or coproduced by one entity or person for another entity or person. Services as products represent a wide range of intangible product offering that customers value and pay for in the marketplace. Ã¢â¬ (Bruhn Georgi, 2006) For example, haircuts, consulting, training and travel are representative services. In present society, there is a staggering increasing rate in services industry, which is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"all economic activities whose output is not a physical product or construction, is generally consumed at the time it is produced, and provides added value in forms that are essentially intangible concerns of its first purchaserÃ¢â¬ . (Lovelock, Wirtz, 2006) III. Service Quality Service quality is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation of a service, where they compared what the receive according to the serviceÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics with their exceptions regarding these characteristics. (Bruhn Georgi, 2006) Therefore, it is apparent that delivering quality service is linked to customer satisfaction and retention, competitive advantage and long-term profitability. In general customers usually look at the quality of both the process and outcomes of services delivery, which means they take both of technical quality and functional quality into account. Part 3. The importance of quality in the marketing of services The biggest barrier for customers in evaluating service quality is the intangible nature of the service. Most consumers lack the knowledge or the skills to evaluate the quality of many types of services. Therefore, they must place a great deal of faith in the integrity and competence of the service provider. Despite the difficulties in evaluating quality, service quality may be the only way customers can choose one service over another. For this reason, services marketers live or die by understanding how consumers judge service quality. The following table defines five dimensions that customers use when evaluating the importance of service quality. They are tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. (Goodwin and R. Radford, 2008) Reliability is the most important in determining customer evaluations of service quality of the five. Services managers pay a great deal of attention to the tangibles dimension of service quality. Tangible attributes, or search qualities, such as the appearance of facilities and employees, are often the only aspects of a service that can be viewed before purchases and consumption. Consequently, service managers must ensure that these tangible lements are consistent with the overall image of the service product. Except for the tangibles dimension, the criteria that customers use to judge service quality are intangible. For example, how does a customer judge reliability? Since dimensions such as reliability cannot be examined with the sense, consumers must rely on other ways of judging service criteria. One of the most important factors in the judgments of service quality by consumer s is service expectations. These are influenced by past experiences with the service, oral communication from other customers and the service companyÃ¢â¬â¢s own advertising. For example, customers are usually eager to try a new restaurant, especially when friends recommend it. These same customers may have also seen advertisements placed by the restaurant. As a result, these customers have an idea of what to expect when they visit the restaurant for the first time. When they finally eat out at the restaurant, the quality they experience will change the expectations they have for their next visit and their own comments to friends and colleagues. This is the major reason why providing consistent high service quality is important. If the quality of a restaurant, or any services, begins to deteriorate, customers will alter their own expectations and oral communication to others accordingly. The most critical aspect of service quality specifications is managersÃ¢â¬â¢ commitment to service quality. Service managers who are committed to quality become role models for all employees in the organization. (Kasper, H. , van Helsdingen, P. , De Vries, W, 1999) Such commitment motivates customer contact employees to comply with service specifications. It is also important that all managers within the organization embrace this commitment, especially front line managers, who are much closer to customers than higher level managers. Consumers want to have a good shopping experience and the most important aspect of a consumers shopping experience is her quality of service. The most important aspect of a consumers decision on where to shop is going to be her perception concerning the quality of customer service she receives is congruent with the level of respect and courtesy required to earn and retain er loyalty as a contentious consumer. If an organization fails to provide quality customer service, the possibility of that customers continuing as a patron of the organization is highly doubtful. A customer shops at the locations where he or she feels comfortable and where the service provided is of the highest quality. Quality customer service is a important aspect of a shoppers experience and if this is overlooked at any time by an org anization, the companys ability to consistently provide continued value to the consumer will be seriously compromised. The customer service is an important aspect of any businesss ability to remain a market force in an increasingly competitive and diverse marketplace. Good customer service, above all else, is the primary factor in an organizations ability to remain growth and increase profitability over the long-term. (Mudie, P. Cottam, A. 1999) Consistently addressing the needs of the consumer through attention to detail, prompt and good-mannered assistance, and the providing of knowledgeable employees is the first objective in providing a memorable shopping experience. Effective customer service policies focus on providing the customer with customer service that is always consistent and focuses on the customer. When an organization creates a customer-centric and high-quality customer service policy, the organization will continue to create lasting value for the consumer. The key to providing good quality customer service and retaining a customer for the long term is providing the customer with lasting value during his or her shopping experience. A company should promote lasting value in the products it provides and in the quality of service provided to the customer by the organizations employees. Companies that continually focus on the best ways to provide the customer with lasting value and quality customer service compared to the services that the customer could expect to receive from a competitor are assured of the potential to create loyal repeat customers out of each customer that the organization assists. Providing good customer service is important to retaining customers against a competitor who sells the same or similar products. (Mudie, P. Cottam, A. 1999) When two competitors offer the same products at similar prices, the customer will consistently return to the location where they received the best ervice. In providing the best service available, an organization creates lasting value for the customer and any organization that focuses on providing lasting value and unsurpassed customer service will continually ensure that the customers the organization assists become customers for life. Adopting policies that focus on creating lasting value for the customer and pro vides him with unsurpassed customer service inherently gains long-term loyalty from that consumer. Part 4. Quality is more difficult to manage in service industries than it is in the case of physical goods The service industry alters the goods they provide, while the physical goods are presented as is. If you are buying a pair of jeans, for instance, then you get that as is. As long as nothing changes concerning those jeans, then it is easy to regulate and maintain their quality. But if you get a haircut, for instance, then no two will be alike and that increases the chances for mishap. Not only are you getting it from different individuals, but each person cutting the hair wont always provide the same type of service from one person to another. The service industry relies more heavily on human performance than that of the physical goods industry. In the physical goods industry, you can say a quality product is one that has certain measureable characteristics. For example, we could say a quality car is testing safely to a certain standard, getting a certain number of miles per gallon or attaining a certain number of miles per hour in so many seconds. In the services industries, this is much more difficult. We can not easily say what it is exactly that makes a service good for everyone, because it is subjective. For example, you might want to cut your hair, but someone else might like theirs long; or you might want quick customer service more than quality customer service, while someone else might have an opposite idea. Once an organization understands its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs, it must establish goals to help ensure good service delivery. These goals, or service specifications, are typically set in terms of employee or machine performance. For example, a bank may require its employees to conform to a dress code. Likewise, the bank may require that all incoming phone calls be answered by the third ring. (Zeithaml, V. A. , Bitner, M. J. Gremler, D. D. 2009) Specifications like these can be very important in providing quality service as long as they are tied to the needs expressed by customers. Physical goods are considered quality dependant only on the process of their manufacture. Services on the other hand depend both on the process and the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinion. Part 5. Conclusion To sum up, quality is an important issue in the marketing of service and it is more difficult to manage in service industries than in the case of physical goods. Quality customer service experiences are the driving force behind customer retention and customer satisfaction. Maximizing the benefits provided through sound customer service policies ensures that the satisfied consumer will express his satisfaction to others and assist the company in continuing to grow their client base through acquisition of customers who are dissatisfied with the level of service they get from the organizations competitors. Tapping into the ability of customer service to maximize this continuous opportunity for revenue is the single most important objective for any company looking to gain a competitive advantage in the highly diverse business environment of today. In order to create the maximized value and satisfy customers, the marketers need to pay more attention to the quality management in service industries. Part 6. References Bruhn, M. Georgi, D. 2006. Services marketing: managing the service value chain. Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall Financial Times. C. Goodwin and R. Radford, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Models of Service Delivery: An Integrative Perspective,Ã¢â¬ in Advances in Services Marketing and Management, ed. T. A. Swartz, D. E. Bowen, and S. W. Bowen, (Stamford, Ct: Jai Press) pp. 231-252. C. Hegge-Kleiser, Ã¢â¬Å"American Express Travel-Related Services: A Human Resources Approach to Managing Quality,Ã¢â¬ in Managing Quality in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Most Admired Companies, ed. J. W. Spechler (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1993), pp. 205-212 J. Reynoso and B. Moores, Ã¢â¬Å"Operationalising the Quality on Internal Support Operations in Service Organizations,Ã¢â¬ in Advances in Services Marketing and Management, Vol. 6, eds. T. A. Swartz, D. E. Bowen, and S. W. Brown (Green-wich, CT: JAI Press, 1997), pp. 147-170 Kasper, H. , van Helsdingen, P. , De Vries, W. 1999. Services marketing management: An international perspective. Chichester: Wiley. Lovelock, C. Wirtz, J. 2006. Services marketing (6th ed. ). Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice? Hall. McColl? Kennedy, J. R (Ed. ). 2003. Services marketing: A managerial approach. Milton, Qld: John Wiley Sons. Mudie, P. Cottam, A. 1999. The management and marketing of services. Oxford: Butterworth? Heinemann. Pieter P. Tordoir (1995). The professional knowledge economy: the management and integration services in business organizations. p. 140. Zeithaml, V. A. , Bitner, M. J. Gremler, D. D. 2009. Services marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm (5th ed. ). Sydney: McGraw? Hill Irwin.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Nonmetals Definition and Properties A nonmetal is simply an element that does not display the properties of a metal. It is not defined by what it is, but by what it is not. It doesnt look metallic, cant be made into a wire,Ã pounded into shape or bent, doesnt conduct heat or electricity well, and doesnt have a high melting or boiling point. The nonmetals are in a minority on the periodic table, mostly located on the right-hand side of the periodic table. The exception is hydrogen, which behaves as a nonmetal at room temperature and pressure and is found on the upper left corner of the periodic table. Under conditions of high pressure, hydrogen is predicted to behave as an alkali metal. Nonmetals on the Periodic Table The nonmetals are located on the upper right side of the periodic table. Nonmetals are separated from metals by a line that cuts diagonally through the region of the periodic table containing elements with partially filled p orbitals. The halogens and noble gases are nonmetals, but the nonmetal element group usually consists of the following elements: hydrogencarbonnitrogenoxygenphosphorussulfurselenium The halogen elements are: fluorinechlorinebromineiodineastatinePossibly element 117 (tennessine), although most scientists think this element will behave as a metalloid. The noble gas elements are: heliumneonargonkryptonxenonradonelement 118 (oganesson). This element is predicted to be a liquid but is still a nonmetal. Properties of Nonmetals Nonmetals have high ionization energies and electronegativities. They are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity. Solid nonmetals are generally brittle, with little or no metallic luster. Most nonmetals have the ability to gain electrons easily. Nonmetals display a wide range of chemical properties and reactivities. Summary of Common Properties High ionization energiesHigh electronegativitiesPoor thermal conductorsPoor electrical conductorsBrittle solids- not malleable or ductileLittle or no metallic lusterGain electrons easilyDull, not metallic-shiny, although they may be colorfulLower melting points and boiling point than the metals Comparing the Metals and Nonmetals The chart below displays aÃ comparison of the physical and chemical properties of the metals and nonmetals. These properties apply to the metals in general (alkali metals, alkaline earth, transition metals, basic metals, lanthanides, actinides) and nonmetals in general (nonmetals, halogens, noble gases). Metals Nonmetals chemical properties easily lose valence electrons easily share or gain valence electrons 1-3 electrons (usually) in the outer shell 4-8 electrons in the outer shell (7 for halogens and 8 for noble gases) form basic oxides form acidic oxides good reducing agents good oxidizing agents have low electronegativity have higher electronegativity physical properties solid at room temperature (except mercury) may be liquid, solid, or gas (noble gases are gases) have metallic luster do not have metallic luster good conductor of heat and electricity poor conductor of heat and electricity typically malleable and ductile usually brittle opaque in a thin sheet transparent in a thin sheet
Sunday, February 16, 2020
LLM EC Competition law - Essay Example Within the UK Articles 81 and 82 EC have been incorporated into the Competition Act 1998 (CA). The aim of these articles and the CA is to prohibit agreements, business practices and behaviors that have, or are intended to have, a damaging effect on competition in the UK (in the EU for the EC Articles).1 Article 81 prohibits any dealings that will distort competition within the EU, which includes any agreement from insider trading through to companies discriminating to supply goods or services on the basis of preferential businesses. The sale and supply of goods and services should be open to all members of the class that the company deals with. Also the sale of goods and services should be based on fair and open grounds, examples that the Office of Fair Trading and the EC use to illustrate anti-competitive agreements, in addition to cartels, include: The basis that the EC has used to identify what grounds are anti-competitive can arguably be determined as not economic, but more socially based. On economic grounds could such agreements as shown above not be a way to create a more competitive market, because if the present competitors agree to limit output does this not open the door for new businesses to open up in order for supply to meet the demand. Therefore it is questionable whether the current system of law is really dealing with what is economically competitive on economic grounds3. This is even more apparent with Article 82 EC, which deals with identifying what equates to abusive behavior by a company in respect to EC competition law. In order to be abusive under the company must be in a dominant position, which raises a question on the fairness of this article because if a company is not in a dominant position why is it not abusive This seems to be more of a social rather than an economic factor, because it means that if you are NOT a powerful and dominant company you can do as you wish.4 This illustrates that the grounds that EC law is determining on abuse in fact favors one sector of the economy over others, i.e. the underdogs. Is this not an abuse of competition law, because in certain instances dominant companies are a natural part of the industry's landscape, e.g. water, natural resources and fuel. This indicates that the current approach to determining a breach of competition law is in fact ironically a breach itself. The definition of dominance comes from the cases of United Brands5 and Hoffman-La Roche6 where the ECJ (European Court of Justice) defined the concept of dominance as: A position of economic strength enjoyed by an undertaking which enables it to prevent effective competition being maintained on the relevant market by affording it the power to behave to an appreciable extent independently of its competitors, customers and ultimately of its consumers.7 It is commendable that the ECJ indicates the need to protect the interests of the consumer; however is this determination on the basis of the economic grounds of